The de facto independent Republic of Biafra in June 1967
6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970
(2 years, 6 months, 1 week and 2 days)
The geographical southeastern Nigeria
Biafra rejoins Nigeria
Nigeria Egypt (air support)
Commanders and leaders
Yakubu Gowon Murtala Mohammed Benjamin Adekunle Olusegun Obasanjo Mohammed Shuwa E.A. Etuk Shehu Musa Yar’Adua Theophilus Danjuma Ibrahim Haruna Ipoola Alani Akinrinade Ted Hamman † Muhammadu Buhari Ibrahim Babangida (WIA) Isaac Adaka Boro † Idris Garba Mustafa Shalaby El Hennawy
Odumegwu Ojukwu Philip Effiong Alexander Madiebo Albert Okonkwo Victor Banjo Ogbugo Kalu Joseph Achuzie Azum Asoya Mike Inveso Timothy Onwuatuegwu † Rolf Steiner Festus Akagha Lynn Garrison Taffy Williams Jonathan Uchendu Ogbo Oji (WIA) Humphrey Chukwuka H.M. Njoku
Military killed: 45,000–100,000 killed
2 million civilians perished during the blockade from famine
The Nigerian Civil War, commonly known as the Biafran War (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970), was a war fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra. Biafra represented nationalist aspirations of the Igbo people, whose leadership felt they could no longer coexist with the Northern-dominated federal government. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions which preceded Britain’s formal decolonization of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963. Immediate causes of the war in 1966 included a military coup, a counter-coup and persecution of Igbo living in Northern Nigeria. Control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta played a vital strategic role.
Within a year, the Federal Government troops surrounded Biafra, capturing coastal oil facilities and the city of Port Harcourt. The blockade imposed during the ensuing stalemate led to severe famine. During the two and half years of the war, there were about 100,000 overall military casualties, while between 500,000 and 2 million Biafran civilians died of starvation.
In mid-1968, images of malnourished and starving Biafran children saturated the mass media of Western countries. The plight of the starving Biafrans became a cause célèbre in foreign countries, enabling a significant rise in the funding and prominence of international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Britain and the Soviet Union were the main supporters of the Nigerian government in Lagos, while France, Israel and some other countries supported Biafra. France and Israel provided weapons to both combatants.